|| These uses of the web are supported by new kinds of
learning spaces that integrate virtual and 'real' activities, and
allow the smooth integration of individual and group instruction.
Such Learning Studios can be created within the museum to maximize
the use of web materials and instruction, and to create a flexible
environment for museum educational activities.
I will now describe the Stanford Learning lab and its major efforts
in these areas.
STANFORD UNIVERSITY LEARNING LAB
The Learning Lab was established in 1997 by President Casper and the
Commission on Technology in Teaching and Learning. It is the centerpiece
of Stanford's response to the revolutionary changes now facing education.
Its aim is to achieve a substantial impact on the quality of education
at Stanford and elsewhere through the use of innovative technology
The Lab sponsors research in learning itself and the technologies
and curricular structures that best support that learning. In particular,
the Lab focuses on the judicious application of pedagogically informed
learning technology, closely analyzing the interactions between
pedagogy and technology in learning and avoiding any simplistic
reliance on technical innovation for its own sake.. Situated outside
any discipline and departmental boundaries, the SLL serves as a
strategic center and advisor for the university as a whole, testing
educational options in order to inform, guide, and give early warning
to those in the university who must respond to the changing educational
environment. The SLL focuses on how learning actually happens at
The Learning Lab's most notable characteristic is its emphasis
on the deep assessment of real learning (and associated teaching)
activity together with the formal assessment of the impact of technology.
So the Lab will develop stringent and comprehensive assessment protocols
to accurately determine the effectiveness any new strategies and
to ensure that its successful experiments can be repeated and expanded
MAKING COMMUNITIES OUT OF AN ANONYMOUS PUBLIC
Stanford is now engaging on a concerted effort to re-think its undergraduate
education programs in order to provide students with personalized,
intimate, and engaged learning. Accordingly, the first project of
the Learning Lab this Fall Quarter was the redesign and testing of
a new Stanford freshman course, Introduction to the Humanities: The
Word and the World. This project is the first in a series of studies
to be conducted by the Lab which will focus on large lecture courses.
The heart of the experiment was the development of an array of Internet
tools designed to support a radical restructuring of the course's
Freshman here at Stanford, and elsewhere for that matter, typically
spend much of their time in courses that combine lectures to large
audiences with small discussion groups taught by junior instructors
or advanced students, a format that poses important motivational
and curricular problems. The scale of the class makes coordination
of discussions and lectures difficult and discourages communication
and collaboration among students and faculty. The result is often
an apathetic and alienated student group.
The Intro. to Hum class is one of the first versions of a new
format for a required Freshman course designed to replace the current
Culture Values and Civilization series. The course, with ninety
students, is team-taught by three faculty from diverse disciplines
and two instructors who lead the discussion sections. The curriculum
stresses close attention to a few selected and exemplary texts approached
from of variety of view-points: i.e. history, literature, and philosophy.
Thus the course emphasizes methods of reading, rather than content.
By 1999 all entering freshman will take some version of this new
The Lab has designed a new kind of lecture course, one that retains
the basic format of lecture and discussion but that transforms the
passive student body into an active community of engaged participants.
This transformation is achieved through a mix of new curricular
formats and innovative applications of web-based technologies. Innovations
include cross-section group projects; web-based, dynamic, and on-going
assessment and feedback systems; and computer-mediated discussions
among faculty and students. The technology has been carefully designed
to merge with and support the new forms of teaching and curricular
For example, in this course all works are studied twice--the first
time the focus is on discussion within discrete sections of the
individual works; the second time students engage in a series of
examinations of groups of the texts and form on their own cross-sectional
collaborations and projects. Students are invited to structure the
second half of the course, taking part in lectures and defining
areas of debate and analysis.
The lab has developed a series of web-based tools and formats
for the course which:
In addition, the project employs an extensive range of modes of assessment:
questionnaires, interviews, video interaction analysis, peer review,
and ethnographic studies.
- Presents the resources, tutorials and assignments for the course,
allowing personalized study,
- Collects, distributes, archives and displays all student work,
- Supports intra- and inter-sectional on-line discussion,
- Alerts and announces course events,
- Displays collaborative notebooks for use by student groups doing
- Collects and organizes each student's work
This web-based, cross-platform system supports close interactions
and feedback among faculty and students as they carry out projects,
assignments and discussions. It accommodates sharing of documents
within and across working groups; delivery of alerts, schedules
and announcements; asynchronous and synchronous peer-to-peer and
novice-expert discussion, planning and argumentation; development
of collaborative notebooks and project records; peer critique and
publication of student experiments in "Course Journals," archiving
of student work, and data collection with tools that record and
help to analyze student activities. This system also maintains an
archive of previous students' work allowing new students to draw
on the experiences of earlier learners in planning experiments and
projects. Finally, the system facilitates coordination and assessment
of individual, small group, project, section, and large group course
activities. Instructors will be able to capture, critique, and document
activities and personal work on an ongoing basis, and these data
will provide us with the means for a comprehensive assessment program
and for ongoing, formative evaluation.
In summary, the potential tools useful to museums would be:
- Forums: To support asynchronous on-line discussion.
The system displays images of the discussant, provides multiple
layers of organizational categories, indexes messages in a summary
view, and makes reading easier by visually organizing the screen
- Alerting and Announcement System: Used to post messages
to members of selected groups or all the public visitors. It allows
the museum to select from active (e-mail based) and/or passive
- Assignment Distribution and Submission Systems: Allows
museum to develop on-line educational activities that can automatically
collect and route public response and work. Such work can be done
directly on the Web, or using other applications such as word
processors, CAD, or drawing programs.
- Work Collections: public to view and review their own
and other visitor's contributions that have been collected along
with comments from the museum staff. The collection can include
both formal and informal postings. Collections can be used for
knowledge sharing among learners, reflection upon one's previous
contributions and assessment by museum staff.
- Authentication System: Used to password the course
site so that private and fair use information can be included
on web pages.
E-folios are personalized knowledge bases that support the learning
process by facilitating:
E-folios are used by:
- the reuse, reflection, integration (synthesis) and sharing of
- the development of life-long learning skills and attitudes.
The Stanford University Learning Laboratory Electronic Learning Portfolios
(E-folios) project will research and develop such methods and technologies,
and work towards integrating them into the learning experience of
Stanford students, faculty, staff alumni, and partner industry professionals.
- individual learners to capture, organize, integrate and reuse
the results of formal and informal learning experiences;
- educators to assess students and share teaching resources in
order to provide students with guidance and rich learning opportunities
within appropriate and innovative pedagogical frameworks;
- learning communities to share and manage information and to
facilitate distributed, collaborative and cost-effective learning.
The Electronic Learning Portfolios (E-folios) is intended to help
individuals capture, organize, integrate and re-use the results
of learning experiences encountered throughout their careers. E-folios
can contribute significantly to improvements in personalized, collaborative
learning while also supporting a variety of student learning styles.
E-folios are ubiquitous, portable electronic knowledge bases that
are private, personalized and sharable. They contain and represent
one's own formal and informal learning experience At the same time,
E-folio content can be selectively shared, thereby creating an unlimited
constellation of larger communities with common understandings and
experience. Such communities can range in scale from pair relationships
to teams of several persons through to enterprise-wide frameworks.
NEW SPACES FOR LEARNING AND FOR ACTIVITIES
Stanford University is creating a new high technology classroom/laboratory
known as The Learning Space. This facility will be
used as a testing place for undergraduate curricula and teaching method
In its capacity as a teaching facility, The Learning Space
will allow for completely flexible teaching and learning arrangements,
with full connectivity for each student, new forms of projection,
visualization, and collaborative creation and virtual experimentation.
In its capacity as a laboratory for innovative curricular design,
it will serve as a workshop for faculty to devise and test new teaching
strategies, new digital applications and experiments, and new forms
of student initiated research.
The Learning Space departs from traditional classroom
design by allowing the learner and instructor to configure the facility
for the activity, the research goals and the special needs of individual
learners. Its design flows from the Stanford Learning Lab's conviction
that students' understanding and appreciation of the arts, science,
and technology is greatly enhanced in environments which:
The Learning Space will be an open lab/studio/seminar
facility that can be configured to support and study different types
of learning activities. It is conceived as a flexible space in which
all components can be reconfigured to support specific tasks. It will
accommodate eight to ten small working groups as well as provide a
setting for formal presentations. Some features of the room include:
- Allow students to 'own' or personalize individual and groups
- Support hands-on educational experiences. These experiences
include running experiments, dissecting physical artifacts, creating
design solutions, collaborating over the Internet, giving formal
presentations, and the direct manipulation of physical artifacts.
- Support a variety of learning activities from lecture/discussion,
to group design work and collaboration learning models, to lab
experiments. It will allow for easy transition from small-group
to large-group activities, even within a single class period.
- Combine formal education with informal and spontaneous learning
in a communal setting.
- Support the presentation and collection of students' work and
concepts in a gallery-like atmosphere. We see educational value
in students displaying and reviewing the work of others.
Video cameras and microphones set up to record course activities.
The room will be instrumented for use by students in documenting their
own work and for use by the teaching and coaching staff in reviewing
and studying --- for example, group dynamics and exercise effectiveness.
- Lightweight, moveable furniture that allows the space to be
easily reconfigured from a seminar table, to a to a design-planning-brainstorming
area, to lab benches. In the lab bench configuration there will
be access to tools, physical resource materials, a white board,
and a storage locker. It is critical that the set-up time of the
physical space to move students from small group work to formal
presentations be minimal.
- Systems for displaying student work and physical /virtual artifacts.
This will be accomplished with many large white boards, bulletin
boards, cabinets, and several bright, large-screen projection
systems showing computer and video displays on several walls.
The projectors will show student work, re-present past learning
activities, and visually configure the room for special tasks.
- Ubiquitous, high-speed networking: computers can be connected
to the network from anywhere in the room.
- Computers artfully inserted in the environment so they do not
inhibit discussion; for example, imbedded screens in special furniture
and lab equipment.
Museums can begin to create long term personal relationships with
visitors through the Web, and to integrate web based materials in
the museum space through the creation of flexible and multi purposed
This file can be found below http://www.archimuse.com/mw98/
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